|BAVIACORA - "Where good plants grow in the river"
Translated from the official Internet site of the state of Sonora, Mexico
ABOUT THE MUNICIPALITY
Originally the territory that the municipality occupies today was inhabited by Opatas, who were subdued in 1637 by General Pedro de Perea.
The name Baviácora is from "babícori", which means "the good plants that grow in the river (Sonora River)" in the Opata language. The name specifically refers to yerba del manso, which is abundant in the region. In 1639, the mission of Our Lady of the Conception of Baviácora was founded by the Portuguese Jesuit priest Bartolomé Castaños. Castaños was assigned to defend the baptized Opatas against the leaders of settlers, who had forced them to work on their lands and enslaved them in mines. When Mexico first became independent of Spain, it was administered by a justice of the peace. Baviácora first became a municipality in the second half of the 19th century, under the District of Arizpe (until districts were abolished by the Mexican constitution of 1917). It was incorporated into the municipality of Arizpe in 1930, and made a separate municipality again by Law No. 88 of the Sonora state legislature on May 13, 1931.
1637 Opatas subdued by General Pedro de Perea.
1639 Founding of the mission of Our Lady of the Conception of Baviácora.
1800s First becomes a municipality.
1931 Becomes a separate municipality again, after having been incorporated into Arizpe the year before.
PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL FACTS
The municipality is located in the north central part of the state, about 77 miles (125 kilometers) from Hermosillo, the capital of and largest city in the state of Sonora, on the banks of the Sonora River. Its seat is the settlement of Baviácora, which is at 29° 42' north latitude and 110° 09' longitude west of the Greenwich meridian. It is at an altitude of 2034 feet (620 meters) above sea level.
It borders the following municipalities of Sonora: Moctezuma to the east, Villa Pesqueira to the southeast, Ures to the southwest, Aconchi to the north and northwest, Ures and Rayón to the west.
It has an area of 331.56 square miles (858.96 square kilometers), which is 0.46 percent of the total area of the state, and 0.04 percent of the national area of Mexico.
There are 26 localities in the municipality of Baviácora; of most note besides the seat are Mazocahui, La Aurora, La Labor, El Molinote, La Capilla, Suaqui, and San José. According to the federal censuses of Mexico of 1980 and 1990, and the preliminary figures of the federal census of the year 2000, the behavior of the population is as follows:
|BAVIACORA, SONORA - Population, Annual Change (%)
Its population in the year 2000 was 3,700, of whom 1,930 were male and 1,770 female. The annual rate of change of the population from 1990 was -0.7 percent, and the population density was 11.11 inhabitants per square mile (4.29 per square kilometer).
The most important stream in the region is the Sonora River, which enters the municipality from Aconchi to the north, and receives runoff from Cieneguita, Mazocahui, Terahuacachi and Tepúa washes in the municipal territory.
The territory of the municipality is in the so-called region of the valleys of the Sonora River. There are various mountain ranges in the municipality, the most important of which are the Hierbas del Manso, Bellotas, Aconchi, El Tiznado, Rodandero, Baviácora, Juan Manuel, San Carlos, and Las Moras.
The municipality of Baviácora has a dry, hot BW (h`) hw (X`)(e) climate. It has an average temperature of 86.2°F. (30.1°C) in the months of June to September, an average temperature of 56.3°F. (13.5°C) in December and January, and an overall average temperature of 72.9°F. (22.7°C).
The period of rains is in the summer, in the months of July and August. The average annual precipitation is 12.66 inches (321.5 millimeters). There is snow and falling ice in the months of November and February.
Classification and Use of the Soil
In the municipality, there are the following types of soils: cambisol, regosol. Cambisol: extends from the east to the northern mountains; is young, poorly-developed soil; can support any kind of vegetation that can adjust to the climate rather than the type of soil; can contain various materials as clay, calcium carbonate, iron, and manganese; its susceptibility to erosion is moderate to high. Regosol: located in the west, from north to south; grainy in the center of the municipality; its fertility is variable with various types of vegetation; its agricultural use depends principally on its depth; its susceptibility to erosion is highly variable and depends on the lay of the land.
Plants and Animals
With regard to plants, most parts of the municipal territory are covered with subtropical desert grassland. There are small areas of mesquite vegetation. Along its eastern and western boundaries, there are areas of forest, oak, and some grassland vegetation.
Animals are of various species, among which are: Amphibians: toad, sapo verde, frog, sapo toro. Reptiles: river turtle, cachoron, cachora, chameleon, snake, chicotera. Mammals: white-tailed deer, Mexican wolf, mountain lion, bobcat, coyote, jaguar, javelina, raccoon, jackrabbit, cottontail rabbit, gray fox, tlacuache, squirrel, bat, field mouse. Birds: doves, owls, magpie, crow, common swallow, starling, duck, vultures, hawks, güilota.
The population that is economically active is 1,195, and that which is inactive is 1,766. Of the active population, 612 persons are in activities of the first sector, 187 are in the second sector, 350 are in the third sector, and 26 are unoccupied.
Agriculture in the Municipality takes place on an area of 3,615 acres (1,463 hectares), of which 2,735 (1,107) have irrigation equipment, and 880 (356) do not. The principal crops are basic grains as corn and beans for subsistence, and feed to support ranching activity. It is the most important economic activity in the economy of the municipality, since it employs 53 percent of the occupied population.
Ranching takes place on an area of 210,035 acres (85,000 hectares), on which 17,217 head of cattle graze. This economic activity has reached high levels of importance, because of constant improvement of the quality of cattle and the works of infrastructure needed to support this improvement.
Industrial activity is in third place in the economy of the Municipality, since it employs 16 percent of the occupied population. For its development, industry consists of the Kino Bay shirt maquiladora (twin plant), which makes men's and women's clothing.
There are 18 establishments of different types, as a gasoline station, a butcher shop, an ironworks, a restaurant, and a beer store. Together, these occupy 41 people.
The municipality has an education infrastructure of 10 preschools, 10 primary schools, and 4 secondary schools. This infrastructure is considered to be sufficient to serve the demands of the population, so its coverage can be said to be 100 percent.
This service covers 100 percent of the population, but only at first level. For higher levels, residents have to go to other cities for specialized attention. The infrastructure consists of Health Centers in the municipal seat and in Mazocahui. There are also 2 ambulances of the Mexican Red Cross. This service is offered by ISSSTESON (Sonora state workers' social security) and the Secretariat of Health.
The coverage of education, health, and other public services is detailed in this table.
|PUBLIC SERVICES IN BAVIACORA, SONORA
(* - Municipal Seat)
Ways and Means of Communication
The municipal seat can be considered to be linked to the rest of the state, country, and world, since it has telephone, telegraph, and postal service, and a paved highway that connects it with the rest of the state. It also has a landing strip with a length of 5,248 feet (1,600 meters).
Economic organizations. - The principal activity of the municipality of Baviácora (in terms of amount of income) is ranching, which has 497 producers in the local Ranchers' Association, with a count of 17,217 head of cattle.
Agrarian organizations. - There are 2 agrarian organizations: Ejido Baviácora with 527 members, and Bienes Comunales de Mazocahui with 180 members.
Education organizations. - In the Municipality there are 15 parents' societies with 667 members, participating in the improvement of education, and working in coordination with teachers to keep school plants maintained.
Social organizations. - There are the following clubs: Sporting Club with 50 members, Friends of the Mexican Red Cross with 30 members, and Women of the Catholic Religion with 60 members. The Council of Municipal Development consists of 26 community representatives who serve 56 committees.